Classification of diesel engine governor(1) according to the working principle, the diesel engine governor can be divided into four types: mechanical centrifugal governor, pneumatic governor, hydraulic governor and electronic governor.
1) mechanical centrifugal governor. All the working principle of mechanical governor is roughly same, they have been driven rotating crankshaft fly hammer (or ball), when the rotation speed change fly hammer also along with the change of centrifugal force, and then use the function of centrifugal force, through some bar to adjust the engine oil, the oil and load size, so as to maintain the engine speed stability.
In small - and medium-power diesel engines, the most widely used is the mechanical centrifugal governor.
There are two types of mechanical centrifugal governor, horizontal and vertical, the main components are blunt disc, ferro, speed regulating spring, adjusting screw and drive rod. When the speed is rated, the centrifugal force of the ferro is balanced with the tension of the speed regulating spring. When the rotating speed is higher than the rated value, the centrifugal force of ferrojet increases the tension of the spring, so that the opening of ferrojet drives the pull rod to reduce the throttle, and the diesel engine automatically recovers the rated speed. On the contrary, when the speed is lower than the rated value, the flying iron moves inward, driving the pull rod to increase the throttle and the diesel engine to speed up.
Mechanical centrifugal governor structure is simple, easy to maintain, but poor sensitivity and adjustment characteristics.
2) pneumatic governor. The induction element of the pneumatic governor USES the pneumatic elements such as the diaphragm to sense the change of the inlet pipe pressure so as to adjust the speed of the diesel engine.
3) hydraulic governor. Hydraulic governor is to use iron of the centrifugal effect to control a pilot valve, again by pilot valve control the flow of pressure oil, adjusting mechanism can be driven by oil pressure increase/decrease the throttle, complete automatic speed regulating purpose.
The advantage of the hydraulic governor is that the output torque is large, the speed regulation characteristic and the sensitivity are better than the mechanical centrifugal governor, the disadvantage is that the structure is more complex, the maintenance technology level requirements are higher.
4) electronic governor. Electronic governor is a more advanced in recent years, research on application of governor, its sensing elements and actuators are mainly the use of electronic components, acceptable speed signal and power signal, through the analysis and comparison of electronic circuit, the output control signal to adjust the throttle.
The speed control accuracy of electronic governor is high, and the sensitivity is high. The main drawback is that the working power supply is needed and the electronic components are required to be highly reliable.
(2) the diesel engine governor can be divided into single program, bipolar program and full program according to its functions. In the engineering machinery diesel engine, the most widely used is the full - program governor.
1) single program governor. The single-program governor can only control the maximum idle speed of the engine, and its working principle is shown in figure 1. The governor shaft l, driven by a crankshaft, rotates the ball 2. Fly ball under the action of centrifugal force to move, when the speed is lower than the calibration speed, with certain of the governor spring pretightening 5, through the speed control lever 4 and the cone on the sliding sleeve 3 extrusion fly ball, fly ball limit near the center of rotation, then flies to the spring force and centrifugal force of fulcrum of axial component of torque is in balance, namely in the engine speed under steady operation. Calibration speed, such as engine speed over the fulcrum of the axial component of fly ball centrifugal force moment is to overcome the spring force moment of fulcrum, fly ball and moving outward, through the cone to push the sliding sleeve to the right, then the speed control lever driven adjustment lever to the left to move, reduce oil, make speed no longer continue to rise (speed calibration speed slightly higher than at this time).
2) bipolar governor. The function of the bipolar governor is not only to control the engine speed characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulator beyond the maximum speed, but also to ensure its stable operation in idle speed. Between the highest speed and idle speed, the governor has no regulating effect. The main characteristic of the bipolar governor is that there are two (or three) springs of different length and stiffness, which have certain pretension force when installing.